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Causes of Poverty

Recently, this concern has focused on the perception that boys are ‘doing better’ than girls in a number of key areas, most notably in the end-of-school results in the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education. However, it is believed that investment in the girl child education at primary school level improves nutritional practices, proper hygiene, management of households and quality of life in developing nations. In Kenya, the government has articulated its commitment to providing free primary education to all children of school going age.

Female performance remains a drawback to realizing an ideal quality and universal remarry education. Performance in Kenya primary schools has been a disturbing issue for a long time. Mango (1998), on the causes of poor performance of English in public day schools and high performance in boarding schools, has found that high performance is due to high motivation for both students and teachers, light subject load for teachers, more learning hours and high economic status. Poor health of the poverty where 47% of the rural people live below poverty line.

Iron deficiency leads to poor cognitive performance. Schwartz et al. (2002) have found that child abuse is a factor leading to poor performance. The types of abuse include beating of children at home and learning institutions; other Student’s deprived of food and hence education. Child abuse leads to children leaving school for streets where they end up getting exploited for cheap labor and even sexual abuse to both the girl and the boy child (ibid. ). Kumquat (2007) has found that poor performance in the Nairobi Siberia Slums has been a result of pupils not taking education seriously.

The surrounding environment has made it difficult for learning. Kumquat (ibid. ) also observes that pupils are ill disciplined and there is high dropout rate in the area. Shania (1983) as found that performance in the Western Province in Kenya is influenced by large class size, poor school facilities, lack of preparation or homework, lack of sound and efficient leadership in the school administration, the inadequate amount of time allocated to teaching and learning teacher characteristics.

Owe (2005) notes that in Say District, wastage is high in upper grades and girls are more affected than boys. This wastage has led to poor performance. This wastage is brought about by lack of fees, inadequate learning and teaching facilities, parental attitude, illiteracy levels, family size and health related problems. There has also been the issue of dropouts due to forced repetition, poverty, absenteeism, child labor, negative attitude, domestic chores and economic activities in the environment.

Snow et al. (2009) says that common factors to poor performance in schools include inadequate teaching resources, absenteeism due to lack school fees, poor syllabus coverage, poor administration leading to lack of motivation of teachers, poor teacher student ratios, poor infrastructure like ill constructed facilities, poor roads, lack of inspections, disease outbreaks like malaria in swampy areas and language Gender is a factor that as been associated with low achievement. The results are however mixed.

For instance, using data from Bangladesh, Caudally, Chuddar, and Dare (2007) combine fixed effects and instrumental variable estimation techniques and find that girls significantly had lower test scores compared to boys, even ‘after controlling for school and classroom specific unobservable correlates of learning (p. 648). Hussein and Millimeter(2008) use a nationally representative panel data set on students from kindergarten to third grade in the US and find that white boys out-perform white girls in mathematics.

But other studies have found the performance of girls to be better than that of the boys. In the I-J, Cannes and Kingdom, (2007) found that boys outnumbered girls as low achievers with nearly half of all such low achievers being white British males. Still in the I-J, Strand (1997) FL ands that girls post better academic performance compared to boys. Cutback (2000) explores attainments by sex in Barbados and SST. Vincent and finds that girls generally had better achievement scores than boys across the range of subject areas.

Fuller, Abraham, Been, Double, Holloway, & King, (1991) also found that girls who attended school in Ethiopians urban centers had better scores in national examinations compared to boys. Though the government is committed to providing basic education to all children of school going age, Kim ward still lags behind. This study will therefore, investigate Performance in national examinations by day primary schools has been poor. This is especially when considered that girls have been generally performing poorly.

Education is a necessary condition for development of individuals and nations. Educational performance of individuals is measured using their performance in national examinations. Performance in national examinations is also used to select students progressing to the next level of education and training. Performance across gender has however varied significantly with male pupils posting very good performance while girls performed poorly. The government commissions have endeavourer to address this through recommendations, which are not supported by systematic studies and adequate data.

Despite the persistent dismal performance in public primary schools in Susan Sighs County, no systematic studies have been done to explain circumstances contributing to the situation. Therefore, this study sought to establish gender performance of pupils in Kenya certificate of primary education: a case study of Kim ward, Susan Sighs County. 1. 3 Objectives of the Study I. To identify family related factors that influence performance of pupils in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kim Ward, I-Janis Sighs County. T. To identify community related factors that influence performance of students in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kim Ward, I-Janis Sighs County. Iii. To identify school related factors that affect performance of students in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kim Ward, Susan Sighs County. 1. 4 Research Questions I. What are the family related factors that influence performance of pupils in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kim Ward, I-Janis Sighs County. Lie.

How does community related factors influence performance of students in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kim Ward, I-Janis Sighs County. Iii. How does school related factors that affect performance of students in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kim Ward, I-Janis Sighs County. 1. 5 Scope of the Study The study will cover all aspects of gender performance of pupils in Kenya certificate of primary education: a case study of Kim ward, Susan Sighs County and also confined within its objectives.

Questionnaire will be used to conduct the study while descriptive statistic will be used to analyses the data. 1. 6 Significance of the Study. The results from this study are aimed at benefiting schools especially public schools to realize the factors that hinder performance and to ensure that they are tackled effectively. 1. 7 Limitations of the Study The findings of this study will be limited Kim primary school. The research would have been digestive if it would have been conducted in all the primary schools country wide though this is time consuming and expensive for the researcher.

During the data collection in the field, the respondents might fail to give the vital information to the researcher since they may have a thinking that the study is for their appraisal. To avoid such discrepancy, the researcher intends explain to the respondents that the study is for academic purposes only and any information given will be handled with utmost confidence. Since the target population will then be determined by the ample size, the collected information cannot be treated as a collective response of the holistic information from the Kim primary school.

It is Just an approximation institutions or bigger population to facilitate generalization. 1. 8 Conceptual Framework Fig. 1 . 1 Conceptual frame work Family related Factors Independent Variable Gender Performance Community Related Factors * Parents’ Consultation with Teachers, Dependent Variable * Parental Response to Provision of Learning Materials, * Parents’ Willingness to Participate in School Development and Assistance Pupils get at Home School Related Factors Source; (Researcher 2012). The conceptual framework above illustrates the interlink between independent variables with the dependent variable (performance).

These independent variables including Family factors (I. E. Education of parent and economic status of the family), Community factors (I. E. Parents’ Consultation with Teachers, Parental Response to Provision of Learning Materials, Parents’ Willingness to Participate in School Development and Assistance Pupils get at Home) and School related factors (I. E Availability and usage of teaching/learning facilities, School type and Teacher Characteristics). These have had serious effects on the gender performance of pupils in public primary schools thus damaging pupil’s academic performance.

For example, inadequate teachers in organizations; who are supposed to be teaching the pupils and controlling indiscipline in school are a bad factors this result in indiscipline in primary schools therefore lowering the level of individual performance. 1. 9 Assumption of the Study This study will be undertaken on the following assumptions: I. The respondent’s will be a true representation of women in the public service. It. The respondent’s will provide genuine responses to questions as provided in the search instruments. Iii.

Research should be completed at the required time. Academic Performance: The ability of a leaner to demonstrate what he/she has already learned. It is measured through passing of written exam, I. E. Pupil’s examination result in this case is KEEP. Education: the process of brining desirable change into the behavior off human being I. E. It is a process of impacting or acquiring knowledge through instruction or study. Gender: Learning: The interaction of the learner with himself and the government. Its acquisition is relatively permanent as a result of practice or experience.

Primary School: It is a learning centre of generation education and not a vocational. Normally the age ranges from 6-12 years. Teacher: A professional who facilitates learning through teaching and who has undergone through the training as teacher. Teaching: A process of facilitating learning through an initiative or provision of the necessary and desirable conditions relevant to facilitate learning. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 INTRODUCTION The main purpose of this literature review is to identify and examine what has been done by other scholars and researchers in relation to strategic pricing on organizational performance.

This review also assists the researcher to limit the problem to define it better. A detailed knowledge of what has been done helps the researcher to avoid unnecessary and unintentional duplication of other projects, demonstrates familiarity with the existing body of knowledge from a framework within which the research findings are to be interrupted and finally to overcome limitations of previous studies. This chapter covers previous studies undertaken on the subject of the study by various researchers and scholars across the globe. 2. 1 Literature Review

It is interesting to note that studies of gender differences in other countries report similar trends and issues to the literature in Kenya. In many countries other than Scotland, girls are surpassing boys in secondary education (Sutherland, 1999). * Olin France since the sass, more girls than boys have been achieving the baccalaureate. * In Germany, girls have been obtaining better school marks than boys; they repeat classes less often and gain school certificates more successfully. * In Japan, girls have become slightly more likely than boys to proceed to upper secondary. * In Australia, recent statistics have shown an advantage for girls.

In Jamaica, for the Around the world books, articles, research and policies are being written on gender equity, which give more prominence to the needs of boys. In many of the countries concerned three important points are highlighted. 1. The emerging gender gap obscures significantly rising levels of performance by boys as well as girls (Younger et al, 1999; Yates, 1997). 2. Differences in achievement are not always very great and vary from subject to subject (Sutherland, 1999). 3. Concern about the lack of success of boys’ schoolwork should not obscure the relative disadvantage of girls in school education.

Researchers from various countries argue that gender reform is not a simple story where the “disadvantage” of girls was discovered, attended to, partially fixed up and then replaced by some of the same processes in relation to boys. They argue that it is not Just about examination results – it must continue to be concerned with the inequalities in the curriculum, processes of schooling, and how schooling contributes to different futures for girls and boys (Harder, 2000; Younger et al, 1999; Yates, 1997; Dolled-Wellness, 1998; Sutherland, 1999).

Margaret Sutherland 1999) suggests that when the causes of girls’ and boys’ disadvantages in schools in different parts of the world are discussed four common factors emerge. * The relationship between employment and levels of education. For example, in the Netherlands, research is looking at the effects of the informal curriculum, both in the early and later years, on students’ subject choices and career paths, because girls do not tend to choose the subjects that act as critical “filters” for market-oriented studies.

It is suggested that unemployment among young women will be twice as gig as among young men in the year 2000, unless girls change their subject choices (Dolled-Wellness, 1998). * the composition and attitudes of the teaching staff. For example, studies in England and the Netherlands have shown that although teachers believe that they give equal treatment to boys and girls, this is rarely achieved (Dolled- Wellness, 1998; Younger et al, 1999). * the attitudes of parents and society.

Recent research in Germany (Dietitian, 2000) has demonstrated that parental stereotyping has an effect on children’s self-perceptions of their mathematical ability, with boys tending to have a higher self-concept than girls. The attitudes of peer groups. Research in the USA (Adler et al, 1992) and in England (Aaron et al, 1998) has identified the influence of peer pressure on achievement. The focus in educational arenas has shifted in recent years from the underachievement of girls to the underachievement of boys, gender differences in education are still an important focus for concern (Penny, 1996).

This is evidenced by the increasing number and range of studies of gender differences in teaching, learning and assessment (Aaron et al, 1999). The authors also note the development of new levels of awareness in the iterate of gender differences in learning styles; responses to different teaching and assessment styles, content and feedback; and gender bias in teaching, examining materials and marking. 2. 2 Causes for gender differences 2. 2. 1 Environment and biological All of the causes for gender differences found in the literature can be seen to lie somewhere along the nature-nurture spectrum.

Researchers, however, have tended to steer away from simple biological explanations because of the risk that they will be used to Justify discrimination against one or other group or will mean that effort is Pickering, 1997). Biological theorists argue that differences between men and women can be explained by differences in chromosomes, hormones and brain structure. However, there is little evidence to support these theories and they are generally seen as insufficient to explain all observed gender differences (Twenty-Perkins and Walsh, 1999).

Furthermore, Gallagher (1997) points out those simple biological explanations cannot explain changes over time in male and female attainment and Aaron et al (1998) point out those patterns of sex differences are often unstable across cultures making biological explanations difficult to Justify. At the other end of the spectrum, lie environmental explanations. These cite the influence of parents, peers, school and society in the development of young peoples’ ideas about being male and female, and on their attitudes, aspirations and interests.

For example, Murphy and Elwood (1998) argue that parents respond in different ways to boys and girls, encouraging them to interact differently with the world and develop different interests. These gender preferences align girls and boys in different ways to schooling and learning, leading them to pursue different interests, which provide them with different learning opportunities. According to Murphy and Elwood, this, combined with teachers’ and parents’ treatment of those preferences, leads to differences in performance. Somewhere in between lie theories about learning styles.

These suggest that children have preferred learning styles, which are established at a young age. If they then experience teaching styles which do not match their preferred learning styles, their learning is affected and they may become denominated. There is uncertainty about whether there are gender differences in preferred learning styles. Some authors claim that girls are more holistic and impulsive, while boys are more analytical and reflective in their learning styles, although others that have looked specifically for gender differences have found none (Dade et al, 2000).

Dade et al, in a review of research on learning styles, highlight the imprudence of predicting children’s learning styles from their sex, pointing out the overlap in the distribution of styles amongst females and males. The concept does not, therefore, offer a simple explanation of gender differences in performance, but it does highlight the need for teachers to take account of different learning styles in heir teaching. A more detailed review of the literature on learning styles can be found below.

Given the range of theories, explanations and evidence on gender differences, it is difficult to establish for certain the exact causes. Some authors now recognizes the need to consider explanations which take account of biological and environmental factors (Ships and Murphy, 1994). For example, Giver (1998) argues that each individual is placed somewhere along a male-female continuum and that we arrive at this point through a complex interplay of genetic, biochemical and social actors. Furthermore, he demonstrates a relationship between this point and the life choices that individuals make.

Whichever reason is chosen to explain gender differences, the important point to bear in mind is that the chosen cause will determine the course of action taken to tackle the problem. Thus, for example, if you decide that the reasons for gender differences are biological, you may decide that there is nothing you can do to influence them, whereas if you decide that they are environmental, there will be a range of strategies that can be adopted which seek to There is evidence in the research literature that boys and girls tend to display different attitudes and behavior in school.

Girls are seen as better prepared, more conscientious, cooperative, organized and respectful. They tend to underestimate their own abilities and their work is better presented. Boys, on the other hand, are seen as ill-prepared, competitive, disruptive, overconfident and less attentive. Boys generally have lower standards of behavior and are involved in more disciplinary problems (Clark and Tradeoff, 1996; Susquehanna, 1999; Aaron et al, 1998; Harrington t al, 2000). Some work suggests that boys and girls have different attribution styles and that this affects their confidence.

For example, Burner and Weston (1993) demonstrated that 5-6 year old boys tended to attribute success on tasks to their own abilities and knowledge and failure to the difficulty of the task, whereas girls talked about their own abilities and knowledge whether they succeeded or failed. Whitehead (1994) demonstrated a link between attitudes and achievement. She showed that girls with more traditional gender stereotyped attitudes tended not to o as well at school, regardless of ability levels.

For those trying to influence the attitudes of male under-achievers, young men themselves report that, while they would not listen to teachers, parents or other adults, they would take advice from brothers or others who had had similar experiences to themselves (Lloyd, 1999). The evidence that boys’ behavior is generally more disruptive links in with the statistics on learning and behavior support, which show that boys are more likely than girls to be assigned to additional support, whether within mainstream schools or in special schools. This issue and current statistics are explored in Chapter 2. . 2. 3 Classroom interaction In a review of the literature on classroom interaction, Christine Howe (1997) reports that gender differences are evident in a range of classroom situations. Input from boys predominated in whole class settings, with boys contributing more to discussions and attracting more attention through misbehaving. Boys tended to dominate in physical settings by volunteering for practical demonstrations and controlling the mouse on computers. There was evidence that girls felt resentful bout this, but also that they complied with it and helped to create the situation.

Girls were more likely to ask for help than boys and did not seem to suffer academically because of differences in interaction. Aaron et al (1998) argue that, while classroom interaction does not seem to affect performance, it is of indirect relevance because it impacts on young people’s attitudes and learning strategies. 2. 2. 4 The influence of peers Some writers postulate that, for young men, the development of masculinity involves distancing from anything perceived as feminine or homosexual, such as the expression of emotions or showing signs of weakness or vulnerability.

This process also involves the devaluing of the feminine and females (Mac an Gail, 1994; Salisbury and Jackson, 1996; Aaron, 1984). In an all-boys school a group of boys are designated the weak group and assigned the role of the girls in a mixed school (Aaron, 1984). This process of achieving manhood is reinforced by peer pressure and the risk of peer rejection. For young men it is important to appear physically tough at school, to rebel against authority and not to be seen to be trying too hard (Mac an