We conduct a survey to document the perceptions of slum dwellers about causes of poverty and petty corruption and examine how fate affects poverty and other related variables. Since no one has funded this research, it was not possible for us volcanically to visit all these slum areas. Moreover, almost all of these slum areas have very similar structure. Once you are inside the area you cannot recognize in which slum area you are in. We have selected all areas of five districts of Karachi (Central, East, Malaria, South and West) so that we have representation of each district in our sample.
And have visited these areas along with different people who somehow know someone in these areas and interviewed 100 respondents including heads of the households. 2. 2 Study Objective: I) In this study, we will explore and study the perception about poverty and corruption of the poor People living In the slums of Karachi. II) After documenting their perceptions, often mistaken, then we document, what are the problems. That these people face when they use public service. “I) To find out the relationship between poverty and religious beliefs. V) To suggest polices that government should adopt in order to alleviate poverty. . 3 Hypotheses: I) Low salary is the major cause of corruption. It) The level of difficulty of getting government services Is move the area where the Providers have monopoly powers. Service “l) Large family size and Joint family systems are the major causes of poverty In slums area of Karachi. ;v) Government should change the mind set of poor people and their wrong perceptions about Poverty, large family size and child labor. 2. 4 Justification of study universe: We used primary data, which was be collected by method of sample survey by using questionnaire.
This method provide us primary data of an attitude, felling, beliefs, post and intended behavior, knowledge, personal characteristics and other descriptive items. In this method a set of questions relevant to the information required Is designed. The main aim of preparing a questionnaire is the systematic gathering of Information from the respondents for the purpose of understanding and/or predicting some aspect of the behavior of the population of Interest. We will conduct a survey to document the perceptions of slum dwellers about poverty, petty corruption, child labor. ND optimal family size. Also, empirical analysis on causes issue. Although, ideally it requires time series analysis, we have designed specific questions that will directly address this causality issue. We believe that corruption and poverty are interdependent and must be tackled simultaneously. Than sample survey must be concerned with sample design. The process of sampling design consists that the population in term of sampling units, specify sampling frame by describing the elements of population specify sampling method; determine sample size which must be drawn from the population.
The aim of sampling is to get axiom information about the population from which the sample drawn. 2. 5 Sample size consideration : Ideally the sample size should be more than 100. However, we believe that a sample size of 100 would serve the purpose and enable us to determine slum dwellers perceptions. As mentioned earlier, all these areas have similar structure; long and narrow (three to four feet wide) lanes. Most of the houses are well below the sewerage line. The total area of these houses varies from house to house. A typical house is less than 40 square yards.
Most of the houses have roof less kitchen. We have seen extreme poverty there. The average salary of a household is only RSI. 7000 (less than $100) per month. The average size of the family is 7. We have seen 20 persons living in a small house in Liars area (West district). Gambling, prostitution, drugs and others criminal activities are common in these areas. The average salary of a child is approximately RSI. 3000 or less than $50 (US) per month. It took us six months (month 2010 to March 2012) to complete this survey. 2. Testing validity of Sampling: We also examine the impact of fate on poverty, education level, spouse work, and child labor by employing Wilcox Z test. This test is preferable over paired t test when the data is on the ordinal scale. Moreover, to check the robustness of the results, this study also uses chi-square (V) statistic, a non-parametric test, proposed by Karl Pearson. 2. 7 Sources of data: There are 539 Catch Abides in Karachi constituting around 60% of the total city population and therefore their residents are the real population of the city.
The following table provides the distribution of these areas in different districts of Karachi: District I No. Of Slum Areas I Central | 119 | East | 105 | Maltreat 1 south | 61 | west | 191 | Total | 539 | These slum dwellers face serious shortage of housing facilities that force them to live in squatters. They do not have access to clean water, basic education, and primary environment. On top of all these people are often required to pay bribes for seeking public services. The harmful impact of petty corruption on economic growth is highlighted in Weston Alan and Visa Kumar 2008, though it involves small amount of money.
Moreover, one window operation and posting of bureaucrats on rotational basis can control petty corruption (Lambert-Megalomania et al. 2007; You 2008). We live that corruption particularly petty in nature exacerbates poverty among slum dwellers which has not been given due attention in the literature. Source: KAKA, Government of Kinds: Master List of Identified Catch Bead’s in Kinds, 30th April, 1998. 2. 8 Use of analytical tools: We used Wilcox and Chi-square tests. We draw sample from each district (Central, West, East, Malaria, and South) to have a representation of each district in our samples.
We will visit these areas and conduct interview of the 100 respondents including head of the household. And we employ Stratified random sampling. 2. Population of Karachi: Karachi is now among the ten top ranking largest cities in the world. In 2005, the population of Karachi was estimated at 15. 1 million which is expected to reach 27. 5 million marks by 2020. The number of households in 2005 was about 2. 1 million and by 2020 it would increase to 3. 9 million, which means an increase of 1. 77 million Households, at an average size of 7 persons per household.
Even at decreasing average annual growth rate (from 4. 15 percent in 2005 to 3. 5 percent in 2020), the increase in absolute terms is staggering and will put heavy pressure on the physical, infrastructure, financial and institutional systems of the city. A large segment of Karachi population, roughly 40 percent, is afflicted with poverty. The living conditions of the deprived section and its economic well being are therefore a major concern, as these impact the environment and growth potential of the city. Karachi population is expanding in terms of civilization and economic conditions.
Apart from in-migrants from Pakistanis provinces, a large number of migrants from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and other South Asian countries have settled in the city. With an average monthly household income of RSI. 5000 (US$250), there is considerable variation in income distribution. Roughly 75 percent of the households fall in the category of poor and low income groups, and 25 percent constitute the middle and high income groups. Karachi city has a long history dated back to 1729 and is considered as a backbone of Pakistan. Karachi is the largest mega city of Pakistan and among the top 1 5 mega cities in the world.
According to City District Government Karachi (KICK), the total population of Karachi is approximately 18 million. According to Karachi Strategic Development Plan 2020 (KIDS 2020), the total population of Karachi is expected to be 7. 5 million by 2020. KARACHI ANNUAL GROWTH RATE ,stance 1951 In 1974 Karachi first divided into three district namely Karachi East, west and South respectively and in 1976 Karachi Municipal Corporation was upgraded to Metropolitan Corporation and later two new districts were created namely Karachi Central (1987) and Malaria in 1993.
In 1987 Zonal Municipal Committee were created and subsequently it merged in the KM in 1994. Then in 1996 five districts (Central, East, North, South and West) municipal corporation (DIM) were formed/created (now each District has Municipal Corporation) under the City Mayor. Later the above system was failed due to unsatisfactory performance and merge [amalgamated in zones under the devolution plan of City District Government, Karachi come into with 18 administrative towns except six military cantonments administrated by Pakistan Army which does not part of KICK and Federal and provincial government land agencies.
Comprising of 178 union councils and the area lying north of the Hub Dam, being part of Karri National Park (For wild life) was excluded from the plan area. Karachi is most populous city. Its population density coupled with lack of general lath provision like pure water supply, good sanitary system and light incidence of poverty and corruption etc. According 1998 Census survey, the largest city which has a population of more than the 9 million. The population and demographic district in Karachi has undergone many changed over more one hundred years.
ADMINISTRATIVE SET UP: Table 1, Shows the administrative set up of KICK: I-City Nazism 2-Naif 3- DOC EDDO EDDO I Source. Nazism Table 1 I Community I EDDO I Agriculture I Education I EDDO I Finance ; Planning I Health I EDDO I Information ; Technology I Literacy I EDDO I Law I Revenue I EDDO I General Administration I Investment Promotion I EDDO I Works ; Services Master Plan I EDDO I City police I Transport I EDDO I Water ; Sanitation I ; KICK Table 2 Town wise Population of Karachi. Sir.
Name of Town I Population (1998) ICEMAKER | 384,378 | | 463,593 | SITE BALLAD | 406,165 | LAIR | 607,992 | SADDER | 616,151 | 7) | SMASHED 731,509 | GOULASH-E-CABAL | 646,662 | SHAH FISCAL 335,823 | 10) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) I LANDED | 652,297 | I KORAN | 546,504 | I NORTH AMAZONIAN | 496,194 | I NEW KARACHI | 684,173 | I GULPER | 453,490 | I LIQUATED | 644,074 | I MALARIA | 398,289 | I BIN ASSAM | 316684 | I GADDED 287,564 | GRAND TOTAL 1 9393236 1 Source 1998 survey: The largest city which has a population of more than the 9 million. Cantonments Location and Population.
These are the six cantonments area control by military administrated by Pakistan Arm forces. This does not part of KICK. Table-3 CANTONMENT LOCATION I sir. Noel LOCATION I POPULATION I a) I MAORI 44,464 | b) I FACIAL CAN’T. / DRIED ROAD 1 133856 1 c) I KORAN CREEK CAN’T | 34,177 | d) I KARACHI CAN’T/SOUTH | 58,088 | e) I CLIFTON CAN’T ‘DEFENSE | 182,489 | f) I MANOR CAN’T | 10,008 | TOTALS 463,082 | Spread out of Karachi Urban Area from Petition Legends Before partition 1956 2001 1974 1987 As the city continues to expand, the future economic growth is expected to have an impact on The study and physical pattern of the mega city .
The future . Appear to hold a promise for transformation of the existing linear pattern to a form of either a polytechnic or a network city. New economic centers with specialized functions may emerge around the present metropolitan area with or without the help of planning . Len order that the new business centers emerge and Grow in a planned manner with good connectivity to different city sections, it is Appropriate to plan the establishment of a few centers at the margin of the City so that these are allowed to play their potential role in the city economic Developing and well-being.
With mounting pressures exerted by the population growth over last two decades , two basic trends in land use observed . Recently, commercial Growth has taken place along major arterial . While most residential Neighborhoods have acquired one or two story structures, significant Identification has taken places through construction of upper floors and Subdivisions of large plots. In many old and new area, apartment alluding, 5-6 Storey high, have replaced the low -density bungalow type housing.
A severe Constraint for this development has been the out date and decadent Infrastructure, particularly deficient water supply and sewerage networks. In such Area I. E. Liars,Jadishness town, Goulash-e-local, Gulper and North Amazonian, extensive replacement of the old lines and redesigning of the Distribution system will be undertaken for essential improvements. Apart from strong centralization along the major road, high-rise apartment building would help remove housing shortages and improve living condition. The Plan Area: The total land area of the Karachi district is approximately 3600 Sq. M, of which about 1300 Sq. Km are occupied by the built-up area (with 15 internal towns). The Karachi metropolitan region, as determined by the commuter zone, spreads over the parts of the surrounding district, That and Camphor of Kinds to the east, and Lesbian of Balloonists to the west. The coastline in the district is about 135 KM long extending along the Gharry Creek westward beyond of the Hub River. Almost in the centre of the coast sheltered by the island of Manor, lies the Port of Karachi, with entire Pakistan and Afghanistan forming its vast Surrounding area [hinterland,.
The Port Muhammad Bin Assam at PRI on the Gharry Creek serves a complementary role. Land, Planning and Municipal Control: In the city district, land planning and municipal control is fragmented into about twenty federal, provincial and local agencies with overlapping powers / functions and utter lack of coordination. These agencies include: Six Cantonment Boards, Port Pakistan Railways, Export Processing Zone, Kinds Industrial Trading Estate, Government of Kinds (Board of Revenue), City District Government Karachi, Liar
Development Authority, Malaria Development Authority, cooperative housing societies and private owners. The multiplicity of ownership, overlapping functions and fragmented municipal control has resulted into following problems: a. Lack of holistic and unified vision for the city, hampering the formulation and implementation of development plans for the city, in integrated manner. B. Unplanned and haphazard growth leading to acute civic problems. C. Environmental degradation and deterioration of living conditions. D. Wide-spread catch Abides / slums, promoting UN-sustainability. . Grossly deficient infrastructure / utilities. . Lack of unified town planning and building regulations. G. Inter- organizational conflicts in provision of basic infrastructure, municipal services and revenue collection. H. Problems in disaster / crises management. Control of Land in Karachi Sir. No. I Land in used by various Authorities Pakistan Railway | 0. 4 | Port Assam Authority | 1. 5 | Karachi Port Trust | 2. 0 | Defense Housing Authority | 5. 0 | Government of Pakistan | 0. 5 | Cantonment Board | 2. 1 | Cooperate Housing Societies | 1. | I Acquire Area in % | 1 I Private Recent Allocation (Industrial Education etc. ) I Liars Development Authority | 5. 6 | I Site Industrial Trade Estate | 0. 6 | I Government of Kinds | 17. 7 | I Malaria Development Authority | 3. 9 | I City District Government Karachi | 30. 9 I Girthed National Park | 20. 7 | | 2. 7 | 10 11 12 13 14 15 Existing Goths / villages in Urban Area. A large number of Goths occupy a significant proportion of land within the Karachi City District. Theses villages lie within the built up area of city and in rural area.
They house a large segment or low-income population. These villages need to be provided with necessary facilities and amenities together with reconsideration of land use to make them efficient settlements. Map of Villages ; Goths in Karachi HOUSING: To keep pace with the housing demand over the Plan period, KICK and Kinds address housing demand at all income levels. Focus will be on housing needs of middle and low-income groups including Catch Bead’s (slum) with an importance on formulation of a pro-poor housing program.
KICK will develop an action program to address the housing backlog in the plan period. It will build its institutional capability in the immediate future to plan and execute the housing programmed. The strategy for the housing sector is based on the following principles: An inclusive approach: Under the national housing policy ‘housing for all’ and the Mid-term Development Framework, the KICK need to adopt an inclusive housing policy that addresses housing demand at all income levels including the poor in the informal settlements (catch abides), who form a large segment of the city population.
A pro-poor policy: While serving the demand of middle and higher income groups having financial capability to acquire developed plots, the KICK will follow a pro poor policy that creates an enabling environment of the low-income groups, including the poor to acquire affordable and livable housing and be able to invest in improving their welling. Some key aspects of the policy will focus on subsides on up-gradation of infrastructure and access to loans from commercial banks, micromanage institutions, and the House Building Finance Corporation (HOFF).
Appropriate plot allocations in housing projects: To meet the higher demand of the low-income groups, the ratio of small plots in all housing schemes will be set at a much higher level, say, 75 percent plots to address the demand adequately. This in accord with the Mid-Term Development Framework (MIDST) proposals and would be an appropriate response to the growing needs of the low-income people. Improving the efficiency of land market: The land market is highly competitive and overridden by assumption which is responsible for price Bend and escalation.
Under such market conditions a large section of the needy are increasingly prevented from acquiring suitable housing. A mechanism is therefore called for eradicating speculative practices and improving access to developed land by the low and middle income groups. Further measures will have to be put in place to improve the efficiency of the land market such as amendments in land transfer procedures, appropriate land use, building standards ND regulations. Besides, a system of information to public on land market would be helpful.
Building capacity of land administration: In order to be able to cater for large demand for land for housing and other purposes, the existing capacity of land administration will require compatible expansion at all levels, along with appropriate reforms in legal and regulatory framework. The important on Reorganization and up- gradation of Catch Abides, and low-income housing, would place considerable burden on the existing capacity that may well become a constraint in quick and efficient delivery, if not expanded appropriately.
Housing Strategy: Principal Constituents Adopting national policy guidelines: Reiterating Vision 2030 for Pakistan, the MIDST 2005-10, delineates/Define the national policy guidelines, identifying issues and mass housing strategy in the national context. It recognizes housing as basic necessity and emphasizes the need Inadequate supply of developed land, limited availability of housing finance and poor land administration identifies, among others, as the major issues.
The housing strategy seeks (a) To increase the availability of developed land in terms of enhancing preparation of small size plots for low-income groups and undertaking high-rise condominium development, (b) Enhanced supply of institutional finance and long-term fixed rate of financing option, (c) Building the capacity of land administration. (d) Discouraging speculation in land, and (e) Developing an appropriate legal and regulatory framework. The MIDST calls for adoption of a pro-poor policy, and improvement in the housing conditions of the informal settlements.
For reorganization and up-gradation of Catch Abides, it favors the Kinds Catch Abides Authority (KAKA) model wherein the land title is tied to moment for land and development cost . Pursuant to the national housing policy and the MIDST guidelines, the KICK will formulate a housing policy that recognizes the demand for new housing plots for all the income groups and the need to address the housing backlog through high rise development, identification and in-fill in the existing metropolitan area, and actuate the occupancy of the developed but so far unoccupied schemes.
The policy will adequately address the issue of widespread Catch Abides in agreement between option and action with the emphasis laid by the national housing policy. Addressing the housing backlog: A major issue in housing delivery is the vast scale of the current backlog which is estimated to be around 100,000 new units per year, based on the difference between new households formed and the number of the new housing units supplied during a reference period from 1981-98. Given the pace of households and housing formation between 1998 and 2005, it is estimated that there is a backlog of 90,000 units per year.
In addition, the population in informal settlements growing at twice the rate is estimated to have grown from 50% of the number of households to 61% of the total households (1. 2 million households). It is expected that by the year 2010, the backlog will Beebe,OHO and new households living in the informal settlements since 1998 will be 941 ,968. At this rate by the year 2010, the backlog would have accumulated to 330,000 units. Accordingly it is estimated that about 100,000 new units will be required to be added annually.
Apparently there is a marked dichotomy/ divide in terms of strategy required to address the backlog in the formal housing and the informal settlements as separate or disparate areas of action. In the formal sector, the backlog delivery will be affected through a range of measures designed to bestially augment the housing supply. The required measures are: a) Identification through consolidation and infill. B) Accelerating the occupancy in new developed yet unoccupied housing schemes. C) Waterfront development with high-rise in designated areas along the coast starching from Bin Assam Port to Cape Mezzo. ) Providing mixed land uses and high density growth in suitable location of the metropolitan area. E)Promoting new economic centers together with affordable housing sectors for all income-groups. F) Appropriate land use and infrastructure improvements in the inner City including overspent-owned housing estates. Promoting the role of private sector developers and public and private partnership: In providing affordable housing and maintaining a consistent supply of houses, the private developers have had an important role, some of the performance shortcomings apart.
The role of the private developers in the formal sector and to some extent in the informal sector needs to be further promoted by ways of unstilted cooperation between the public sector agencies and the private developers, and building partnership in a sustained manner so that the housing velveteen issues are appropriately resolved as a shared responsibility. In the informal sector, the private sector roles will be crucial to the success of improvement and up-gradation programs for Catch Abides where models and modes of partnership would be successfully forged. Meeting the needs of the informal sector, the Catch Bead’s.
Committed as the KICK is to making better of the housing conditions of the Catch Abides residents, the housing program assigns priority to reorganization and up- gradation of the notified Catch Bead’s which task will be accelerated with urgency to obtain the goals. The program will move forward with the involvement of the community, the private developers, financial institutions and the assistance of the international funding agencies. While the government will make substantial investments in trunk infrastructure, the residents will be encouraged to improve their living conditions.
Experience has shown that where properly supported; housing can be improved in an incremental manner. Involvement of the community and civil society involvement can help create an enabling environment for the poor and loc-income groups to acquire acceptable standards with respect to housing laity, infrastructure facilities, basic amenities and the development of their neighborhoods Assistance from the housing finance institutions and commercial banks would be an important factor for obtaining the desired pace in movement forward.
Enhancing supply of institutional finance: Housing finance is a key towards achieving adequate progress in housing program, particularly improvements required in the Catch Bead’s and low-income housing. The House Building Finance Corporation will be required to make more finance available to all income groups, and make necessary modifications in loan payment and recovery modes so as to acclimate access to housing finance for larger clientele including the low-income groups.
Small loan packages introduced by the HOFF would still need to improve and widen the coverage. Special finance packages for the poor in the Catch Bead’s , and appropriate instrument should be devised to increase access to institutional finance for acquisition of serviced plots and house-building. Commercial banks are also expected to increase financial loans for housing but requirements of appropriate collateral would be a hindrance in case of the low-income or the Catch Abides residents. Enhancing the management capacity: