It depends not only on Income but also on access to services. Hunger is a term which has two meanings The uneasy or painful sensation caused by want of food; craving appetite. The want or scarcity of food in a country World hunger refers to the second definition, aggregated to the world level. Malnutrition Is a general term that indicates a lack of some or all nutritional elements necessary for human health. In a world of plenty, a huge number go hungry. Hunger Is more than Just the result of food production and meeting demands. The causes of hunger are related to the causes of poverty.
One of the major causes of hunger is poverty itself. Person every three and a half seconds. Unfortunately, it is children who die most often. Yet there is plenty of food in the world for everyone. World agriculture produces 17 percent more calories per person today than it did 30 years ago, despite a 70 percent population increase. This is enough to provide everyone in the world with at least 2,720 collieries (kcal) per person per day. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty. They lack the money to buy enough food to nourish them.
Being constantly malnourished, they become weaker and often sick. This makes them increasingly less able to work, which then makes them even poorer and hungrier. This downward spiral often continues until death for them and their families. We often hear about people’s desire to solve world hunger, or to be able to feed the world and help alleviate the suffering associated with it. However, meaningful long-term alleviation to hunger is rooted in the alleviation of poverty, as poverty leads to hunger. World hunger is a terrible symptom of world poverty.
If efforts are only directed at providing food, or improving food production or striation, then the structural root causes that create hunger, poverty and dependency would still remain. In order to break this spiral, United Nations Organization proposed the Millennium Development Goals and targets associated with the goals which are to be achieved by 201 5. The Millennium Development Goals (Meds) have been the most successful global anti-poverty push in history. Page 3 of 17 Target IA: Halve, between 1990 and 201 5, the proportion of people living on less than $1. 5 a day World: The proportion of people living in extreme poverty has been halved at the global level. The world reached the poverty reduction target five years ahead of schedule. In developing regions, the proportion of people living on less than $1. 25 a day fell from 47 per cent in 1990 to 22 per cent in 2010. About 700 million fewer people lived in conditions of extreme poverty in 2010 than in 1990. Extreme poverty rates have fallen in every developing region, with one country, China, leading the way.
In China, extreme poverty dropped from 60 per cent in 1990 to 16 per cent in 2005 and 12 per cent in 2010. Poverty remains widespread in sub-Sahara Africa and Southern Asia, although progress in the latter region has been substantial. In Southern Asia, poverty rates fell by an average of one percentage point annually-?from 51 per cent in 1990 to 30 per cent two decades later. In contrast, the poverty rate in sub-Sahara Africa achievement at the global level,l . 2 billion people are still living in extreme poverty. Insulin-Sahara Africa, almost half the population lives unless than $1. 5 a day. Sub- Sahara Africa is the nonlinearly that saw the number of people living in extroverted rise steadily, from 290 million in 1990 to million in 2010, accounting for more than a third people worldwide who are destitute. The World Bank projects that, by 201 5, about million people will still be living on less than $1. 25 day in countries classified as low- or middle-income minion. Sub-Sahara Africa and Southern Asia will cacheable home to about 40 per cent of the developing worshipfulness living in extreme poverty. Fig 1. Population spread through the world below poverty line Page 4 of 17 India: India has been moderately successful in reducing poverty. The Poverty Headcount Ratio which is estimated to reach 18. 6 percent by 201 5 (according to the Government of India MEG Report 2009) is likely to miss the target by about 3. Percentage points. Between 2004-05 and 2011-12, the percentage of people below the poverty line declined from 37. 2% to 21. 9%. But this higher rate of reduction in poverty is easily explained as being the result of higher growth, particularly during the boom years 2004-05 to 2007-08.
What is much more interesting, though, is the steep decline in the poverty ratio that occurred between 2009-10 and 2011-12. In 2009-10, the percentage of Indians below the poverty line was 29. 8%, which means that the decline in the poverty headcount was 7. 9 percentage points in the two years between 2009-10 and 2011-12. Looking at the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, the government’s flagship welfare programmer, according to the government’s own statistics, the total person days of work under the scheme declined from 2. 83 billion in 2009-10 to 2. 16 billion in 2011-12.
So it wasn’t the make-work programmer that led to an accelerated reduction in poverty. A more acceptable reason for reduction in poverty is the growth in the employment during the second half of the 2000-10 decade. A total of 15 million Jobs were created during this period. Most of this Job creation occurred through the labor intensive export industry. The other reason may be the improved agricultural growth during these two years. Average growth in agriculture was 6. 4% compared to an average of 3. 2% in the preceding five years. That could account for the rise in real wages among the poor during 2009-10 to 2011-12.
So perhaps it may indeed be true that a combination of higher agricultural growth and more Jobs led to a large decrease in poverty during the two years. Target 1 B: Halve, between 1990 and 201 5, the proportion of people who suffer from The hunger reduction target is within reach The proportion of undernourished people in developing regions decreased from 23. Per cent in 1990-1992 to 14. 9 per cent in 2010-2012. Given reinvigorated efforts, the target of halving the percentage of people suffering from hunger by 201 5 appears to be within reach.
Still, one in eight people in the world today remain chronically undernourished. The vast majority of the chronically undernourished (852 million) reside in developing countries. Disparities remain large in the rate of reduction in undernourishment among regions and countries. Progress has been Page 5 of 17 relatively swift in South-Eastern Asia, Eastern Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia and in Latin America. However, the pace of change in the Caribbean, Southern Asia and, especially, suburban Africa and Oceania appears to be too slow to meet the MEG target.
Western Asia is the only region that has seen a rise in the prevalence of undernourishment from 1990-1992 to 2010-2012. Globally, an estimated 101 million children under age five were underweight in 2011. This represents 16 per cent of all children under five that year, or one in six. The number of underweight children in 2011 fell by 36 per cent from an estimated 159 million children in 1990. Still, this rate of progress is insufficient to meet the MEG argent of halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by 2015. Underweight prevalence in 2011 was highest in Southern Asia (31 per cent) and sub- Sahara Africa (21 per cent).
This translates into 57 million and 30 million underweight children in Southern Asia and sub-Sahara Africa, respectively. India is going slow in eliminating defected of malnourishment. From estimated 52% in 1990, the proportion of underweight children below 3 years is required to be reduced to 26% by 2015. According to the officially acclaimed estimates, the proportion of underweight has declined by 3 percentage points during 1998-99 02005-06, from about 43% to about 40% and at this rate of decline is expected outcome down to about 33% only by 2015.