These hillier also have a much higher rate of accidents than do other children, and they are twice as likely to have impaired vision and hearing, iron deficiency anemia, and higher than normal levels of lead in the blood, which can Impair brain function. Levels of stress In the family have also been shown to correlate with economic circumstances. Studies during economic recessions Indicate that Job loss and subsequent poverty are associated with violence In families, Including child and elder abuse. Poor families experience much more stress than middle-class families.
Besides financial uncertainty, these families are more likely to be exposed to series of negative events and “bad luck,” including illness, depression, eviction, job loss, criminal factorization, and family death. Parents who experience hard economic times may become excessively punitive and erratic, issuing demands backed by insults, threats, and corporal punishment. Homelessness, or extreme poverty, carries with it a particularly strong set of risks for families, especially children. Compared to children living in poverty but having homes, homeless children are less likely to chive proper nutrition and immunization.
Hence, they experience more health problems. Homeless women experience higher rates of low-birth-weight babies, miscarriages, and Infant mortality, probably due to not having access to adequate prenatal care for their babies. Homeless barnacles experience even greater life stress than other families, including increased disruption in work. School, family relationships, and friendships. Sociologists have been particularly concerned about the effects of poverty on the “black underclass,” the increasing numbers of jobless, alfalfa-dependent African Americans trapped in inner-city ghettos.
Many of the industries (textiles, auto, steel) that previously offered employment to the black working class have shut down, while newer industries have relocated to the suburbs. Because most urban jobs either require advanced education or pay minimum wage, unemployment rates for Inner-city blacks are high. Even though Hispanic Americans are almost as likely as African Americans to live In poverty, fewer inner-city Hispanic neighborhoods have undergone the same massive changes as many black neighborhoods have.
Middle and working class Holland families have not left their barrio, or urban Spanish-speaking neighborhood, In large numbers, so most Hispanic cultural and social institutions there remain intact. In addition, local based, not welfare-based, businesses. Climbing out of poverty is difficult for anyone, perhaps because, at its worst, poverty can become a self-perpetuating cycle. Children of poverty are at an extreme disadvantage in the Job market; in turn, the lack of good jobs ensures continued poverty. The cycle ends up repeating itself until the pattern is somehow broken.
Feminist perspective on poverty Finally, recent decades have witnessed the finalization of poverty, or the significant increase in the numbers of single women in poverty alone, primarily as single mothers. In the last three decades the proportion of poor families headed by women has grown to more than 50 percent. This finalization of poverty has affected African- American women more than any other group. This finalization of poverty may be related to numerous changes in contemporary America. Increases in unwanted births, separations, and divorces have forced growing numbers of women to head or households.
Meanwhile, increases in divorced fathers avoiding child support coupled with reductions in welfare support have forced many of these women- headed households to Join the ranks of the underclass. Further, because wives generally live longer than their husbands, growing numbers of elderly women must live in poverty. Feminists also attribute the finalization of poverty to women’s vulnerability brought about by the patriarchal, sexist, and gender-biased nature of Western society, which does not value protecting women’s rights and wealth.